Hannaian Eye Associates

Dr. Harlington L. Hanna Jr.
Board Certified Optometric Physician
Practice Specializing in Pediatric Eye Care & Neuro-Optometry

Hannaian Eye Associates, South Florida offices ...Delray Beach, Wellington, Jensen Beach, Vero Beach, ...Tel. (772) 692-4020, (561) 561-793-4494, email: heyes@hannaian.com. For emergency care dial (772) 985-9121.

Pediatric Eye Evaluation Neuro-Vision Evaluation Visual-Perception Evaluation Articles Contact Us

Welcome to our online office.

We are dedicated to providing the best eye and vision care to our patients. In addition to many years in academia, Dr. Hanna has also been a practicing eye doctor since 1977 and has examined, diagnosed and treated thousands of primary eye care patients in addition to a long and distinguished career in his specialty areas of Pediatric Eye Care and Neuro-Optometry.

As a former professor and chief of pediatric eye care at one of the leading institutions of Optometry in the United States, he has been intricately involved with training some of the best eye doctors in the country and has participated in important eye and vision clinical research. He received his initial training and Doctorate in Optometry from the University of Houston's College of Optometry and University Eye Institute, associated with the world renowned Texas Medical Center. He then furthered his education, specialization, and clinical training at several other institutions.

In addition to his qualifications as an eye doctor, Dr. Hanna brings to his eye practice a background in Educational Psychology and Law having been professionally trained and qualified in both these disciplines. As a practicing attorney he has had significant experience in the area of medico-legal matters among other areas of the law.

Dr. Hanna has published professional articles and lectured widely in the area of his specialties and has received numerous professional and other awards over the years.

Dr. Hanna and his associated group of eye doctors service several South Florida locations providing primary eye care services, anterior segment disease, glaucoma, and other primary eye disease diagnosis and treatment, pediatric eye care, neuro-optometric care and a wide range of diagnostic services. Associated optical services and materials are available by expert opticians at each location.

Please Contact us for more information, or to schedule care and consultation

Harlington L. Hanna Jr., O.D., M.Ed., J.D., Hannaian Eye Associates, (772) 793-4494 Wellington, (772) 692-4020 Jensen Beach, (772) 597-4300, email: heyes@hannaian.com. For emergency care dial (772) 985-9121.

Pediatric Eye Care

As a former professor of pediatric eyecare and neuro-optometry, Dr. Hanna has been involved with clinical care and research in virtually all aspects of Pediatric Eye & Vision Care. Due to the developing nature the of pediatric patient special care and training is necessary to adequately diagnose and treat the anomalies of pediatric eye and visual function. The following list details some of the more common categories of anomalies in pediatric eye & vision care.

Primary Ocular Diseases
Systemic Ocular Diseases
Neuro-Ophthalmic Disorders
Refractive Disorders
Binocular Disorders
Accommodative Dysfunctions
Ocular Motility Disorders
Vision Development Anomalies
Psychogenic Visual Disturbances
Psychoperceptual Disorders
Vision Related Educational Dysfunctions

Neuro-Vision Evaluation in Pediatric Eye/Vision Care

A major problem with in pediatric eye care is the development of a child's visual system and the demands made upon it in the ever increasing competitive school environment. For a student to effectively compete in school and learning actvities their visual system should be in prime functional condition. This generally means that visual functions beyond the basic evaluation for clinical eye disease, and visual acuity must be evaluated.

Generally in a basic eye examination only eye disease and visual acuity is evaluated, and many children with other functional and school performance problems get a clean bill of ocular health and acuity but may still be visually deficient because they have not had all of the necessary elements of visual performance evaluated.

Many times classroom teachers will notice that school performance, reading difficulties, and deficient pycho-perceptual visual function persists in children who have supposedly had their eyes examined with given a clean report of Ocular-Vision function. Teachers are most important in detailing and recognizing such problems and should always be properly engaged in a Child's Ocular-Vision care if school performance is at question.

It is therefore most  important that school age children be properly and fully  evaluated. Parents should question the examining practitioner as to whether their examination specifically covers a detailed evaluation of the areas of Binocularity, Fusional and Accommodative disorders, and Pyscho-Perceptual Vision functions.

The in-depth evaluation of these functions will require additional evaluations beyond a general eye examination, and in our offices patients needing this type of evaluation are scheduled for a Neuro-Vision Evaluation.

For further information on pediatric eye and vision care see our Article Section

Neuro-Optometric Care

Neuro-Optometry is the study of the etiology, clinical evaluation, diagnosis, treatment and management of disease and disorders of the
eye and visual system as it relates directly to the brain and nervous system.

Examples Include all aspects of eye, vision, and nervous system conditions involving the brain, cranial nerves, spinal cord, peripheral nerves, and corresponding muscles, i.e., multiple sclerosis, pituitary tumor, brain trauma, myasthenia gravis, papilledema, horner's syndrome, and numerous other organic and functional anomalies

Anatomically, a significant number of the twelve cranial nerves in the brain (seven of the twelve) are intricately and/or primarily involved with eye and vision function, as are numerous pathways in the cerebral cortex. Four of the twelve cranial nerves innervate the eye only, and three others innervate the eye and some other organ. As such the eye which is also the closest major organ to the brain, is directly innervated by seven of the twelve cranial nerves in addition to other brain processes. The eye has therefore often been described as an appendage of the brain.

It is a significant fact that most people never see a brain doctor (Neurologist) in their entire lifetime. They are usually referred to a Neurologist only after some neurological event is discovered or suspected by another practitioner. In contrast, many patients may see their eye doctor as much as several times each year, evidencing the fact that the best neurological exam most people ever receive is a good eye examination. This is the reason many neurological problems are first discovered through an eye examination.

While the eye is the physical conduit of vision, the cerebral hemispheres of brain is the actual place in the body where vision occurs and is interpreted. Likewise most of the motor functions of the eye are directly controlled by the cranial nerves.

Neurological deficits therefore can have many eye and visual consequences. A proper eye examination therefore is often the first examination to identify or discover a neurological problem. In addition, many eye and vision problems have their direct cause as a neurological deficit or neuro-physiological event.

In addition to its diagnostic modalities, Neuro-Optometry deals with related disorders which have a neurological etiology or base and benefits from Neuro-Optometric Rehabilitation. Neuro-Optometric Rehabilitation is the examination and treatment of adult and pediatric patients with visual dysfunction related to conditions like traumatic brain injury, stroke, cerebral palsy, multiple sclerosis, or brain tumor.

Neuro-visual problems can manifest as reading difficulties, visual inattention, eyestrain, double vision, visual memory problems, visually related anxiety, balance and postural difficulties, side vision loss, sensitivity to bright light, and other related symptoms or signs.

Neuro-Optometric Rehabilitation is an individualized treatment regimen for patients with Visual Deficits as a direct result of Physical Disabilities, Traumatic Brain Injuries, and other Neurological Insults. Neuro-Optometric Therapy is a process for the Rehabilitate of Visual/Perceptual/Motor Disorders. It includes, but is not limited to, Acquired Strabismus, Diplopia, Binocular Dysfunction, Convergence and/or Accommodation, Paresis/Paralysis, Oculomotor Dysfunction, Visual-Spatial Dysfunction, Visual Perceptual and Cognitive Deficits, Autism related eye & visual anomalies, and Traumatic Visual Acuity Loss.

Patients of all ages who have experienced Neurological Insults require Neuro-Optometric Rehabilitation. Visual problems caused by Traumatic Brain Injury, Cerebrovascular Accident, Cerebral Palsy, Multiple Sclerosis, etc., may interfere with performance causing the person to be identified as Learning Disabled or as having Attention Deficit Disorder. These Visual Dysfunctions can manifest themselves as psychological sequella such as Anxiety and Panic Disorders as well as Spatial Dysfunctions affecting balance and posture.

A Neuro-Optometric Rehabilitation treatment plan improves specific Acquired Vision Dysfunctions determined by standardized diagnostic criteria. Treatment regimens encompass medically necessary noncompensatory lenses and prisms with and without occlusion and other appropriate medical rehabilitate strategies.

Some of the more common Ocular and Vision problems involved with Neuro-Optometric care are:

Blurred Vision (constant & intermittent)
Double Vision (constant & intermittent)
Eye Pain
Crossed or Turning Eyes (constant & intermittent)
Accommodative (Focusing) Dysfunctions
Binocular Vision Dysfunctions
Eye Movement Problems
Psychogenic Visual Disturbances
Psychoperceptual Disorders
Brain Injured Eye & Visual Disorders
Autism Related Visual Disorders
Low Vision Anomalies
School & Learning Related Problems

For further information on neuro-ophthalmic disorders eye and vision care see our
Article Section